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Mýty a tajemství hory Kilimandžáro

Napsáno editor

Covered in mist, full of legends and mystery, Mount Kilimanjaro (otherwise known as the roof of Africa) stands to attract tourists from all corners of the world, the reasons behind its nomination to c

Covered in mist, full of legends and mystery, Mount Kilimanjaro (otherwise known as the roof of Africa) stands to attract tourists from all corners of the world, the reasons behind its nomination to contest for listing in New Seven Wonders of Nature.

Mount Kilimandžáro s výškou 5,895 330 metrů, obklopené šedými, temnými mraky a většinu dne pokryté mlhou, se nachází asi XNUMX kilometrů jižně od Rovníku a poskytuje úžasnou a úžasnou inspiraci stovky kilometrů odtud.

Kilimandžáro je jednou z předních samostatných a volně stojících hor na světě a skládá se ze tří nezávislých vrcholů Kibo, Mawenzi a Shira. Celá horská oblast je 4,000 XNUMX kilometrů zemského povrchu.

Mount Kilimandžáro, které vzniklo asi 750,000 250,000 let sopečnými erupcemi, trvalo 500,000 250 let několika geologickými změnami a současné rysy se formovaly během posledních XNUMX XNUMX let poté, co došlo k řadě otřesů a otřesů, které způsobily vznik XNUMX sopečných kopců a kráterových jezer včetně nádherné jezero Chala po jeho svazích.

Poslední vulkanická aktivita nastala asi před 200 lety a kolem vrcholu Kibo vytvořil symetrický kužel popela a od té doby se na Mt. Kilimandžáro bylo až do dnešního dne v míru, ale lidé, kteří žili na svazích a pozorovali sopečné erupce, spojili tento přirozený jev s trestem od Boha.

When Mount Kilimanjaro is Africa’s jewel today, earlier occupants of its slopes took this glorious and glamorous mountain to a place on not going in fear of reprisal from God because it was his almighty seat. And locals today see the dwindling snow as a punishment from God because too many humans attempt to climb it everyday. Tourist deaths on the mountain are as well, connected to wrath from God.

Uncounted stories, thousands of myths and legends are told about Mount Kilimanjaro. Locals on the slopes, the Chagga people, are telling us of pygmies said to be no larger than human children, and who dwelt on the mountain’s caves and ravines. These ravines, which have never been explored by tourists, are said to have been inhabited by mountain pygmies who survived by hunting and gathering.

Stories on Mount Kilimanjaro tell of mountain gorillas once lived inside the dense, rainforest surrounding its slopes many years ago. Tales from locals, though no scientific data yet available to ascertain this, have occupied the minds of tourists climbing the mountain today.

Folklores dominate Mount Kilimanjaro as well. The awesome feature of the mountain with its snow on the peak had attracted locals to connect the mountain with heavens, believing that it was the seat of God, glorified by the whitish color of the snow.

Během období sucha v minulosti místní obyvatelé obviňovali démony hory, že odnesli déšť, ale když bylo příliš mnoho deště, obrátili svou tvář k hoře a uklonili se a prosili Boha, aby jim odpustil.

Adding to the mystery of this highest mountain, there, probably dozens of names to mention it, as it remains a puzzle today.

For the local Chaggas, the name Kilimanjaro does not belong with their history or legend, it does not mean much although it’s the most famous name to foreign visitors or others from far away. They don’t have a collective name for this majestic mountain, they have two separate names. They call the highest peak “Kipoo” or Kibo and the shortest peak “Kimawense” or Mawenzi.

The Maasai people on the very lower slopes never gave a name to this awe-inspiring mountain but the Wakamba people on the Kenyan side named it “Kilima Jeu” and “Kayolaa.”

Germans named the mountain “Kilimandscharos,” though nobody knows where the Germans got the name. Some argue that it could have been a contraption from wrong pronouncement from the Chagga’s expression “Kilemeiroiya,” meaning not easy to climb on.

It is also believed that the present name of the mountain was derived from the Swahili people from Mombasa and other coastal towns who called it “Kilima Njaro,” or mountain of caravans, because they used the mountain as the symbol to determine directions form far away, as their compass.

Despite this naming convention is frequently agreed upon in East Africa, other communities like the Kikuyu and Maasai have their interpretations of what the name means and how it came about.

Some historians also feel that outsiders may have changed the Chagga word to “Kilema kyaro,” which means “difficult journey to Kilimanjaro.” Another theory is that the travelers to the mountain may have asked the Maasai living on the plains what they called the mountain, and the Maasai may have answered that it was the source of water using the word “Ngare” that then evolved to “Njare” or “Njaro.”

Other writers have since suggested that the name means “Shining Mountain,” “White Mountain” or “Mountain of Water.”

Kilimanjaro, unlike other known mountains in the world, has its present name remaining a puzzle to this date. Tourists and other mountain lovers could one day solve this puzzle. Its name remains one of many popular myths that add to its attraction for those wishing to unravel it.

Although mentioned in African legends, the earliest written records of the mountain date back to the second century when a Greek geographer Ptolemy from Alexandria in Egypt wrote about the land beyond “Opone” and the great snow mountain in Rhapta. Opone, according to Ptolemy, is the coastal part of Somalia and northern coast of Kenya, and Rhapta is the big landmass or the great East African massif where Mount Kilimanjaro is part of this, huge landmass.

Mount Kilimanjaro had been thought to be the source of River Nile and a Mountain of mystery – the mystery being a snow capped Mountain in Africa. Africa was thought to be a continent of savages, thus stories about the continent were often down played. With colonization came European missionaries, who traveled inland to preach their religion.

1n 1846, Dr. Ludwig Krapf and Johann Rebmann landed at the coast of Kenya and set up a missionary at Rabai, close to the town of Mombasa. In 1849, both Krapf and Rebmann confirmed their sightings of the great Mountain. Rebmann saw the mountain from his camp at Taveta in Kenya.

Reports about the mountain were received by the Royal Geographical Society, which prompted a great debate about the accuracy, about the height and possibility of snowcapped mountains in Africa.

V roce 1861 se Richard Thornton pokusil o první výstup. Hora byla pro něj nová a těžko pronikla druhou zónou. Také počasí bylo příliš špatné a tlačilo ho dolů. V roce 1862 se o výstup pokusili Otto Kersten a baron Von der Decken. Vylezli přes 15,000 XNUMX stop, ale kvůli špatnému počasí byli přinuceni dolů.

5. října 1889 se německému geologovi podařilo dosáhnout vrcholu Kibo, nejvyššího bodu na africkém kontinentu. Pojmenoval toto nejvznešenější místo v Africe Kaiser Wilhelm's Peak.

Prominent and world personalities have climbed the mountain including former United States Secretary of Interior Stuart Udall in 1963, and former US President Jimmy Carter in 1988, apart from other dignitaries.

Retired Tanzanian army, General Mirisho Sarakikya is the known Tanzanian to have climbed the mountain 38 times in his annual pilgrimage to the rooftop of Africa.

The General saw this majestic mountain as the only natural laboratory and a therapy for unknown diseases.

“If you manage to reach its peak, then, be assured of your body fitness, you are physically fit. When you have a health problem, the climbing exercise will detect it and you will not reach the top point”, the General said.

The oldest Mount Kilimanjaro climber known today is an 84 year old American tourist, Mr Richard Byerley from Washington state who has broke the record to become the oldest person to reach the peak of Mount Kilimanjaro recently.

Byerley had his name entered the Guinness World Records as the oldest known climber to reach the highest peak in the African continent.

Mount Kilimanjaro represents the worldwide image of Africa and its towering, snow capped symmetrical cone is synonymous with Africa. Internationally, the challenge of learning about, exploring and climbing this mysterious mountain has captured the imagination of people throughout the world. To many, the chance to climb this mountain is an adventure of a lifetime.

Mount Kilimandžáro je dodnes symbolem různých národních a mezinárodních aktivit, obchodu a dokonce i politiky. Obchodní společnosti a různé sociální kluby mají své registrace nesoucí název Mount Kilimanjaro, aby zobrazily jejich majestátní existenci.

V roce 1961 byla na horu vyvěšena vlajka nově nezávislé Tanzanie, která měla být vyvěšena na vrchol hory, a na vrcholu byla rozsvícena pochodeň svobody, aby rozpoutala politickou kampaň za jednotu, svobodu a bratrství.

Tanzania will mark 50 years of independence next month with a symbol and pride of Mount Kilimanjaro as its tourist, social and political brand mark. This African highest mountain has been listed among twenty-eight leading tourist destinations in the world nominated as candidates for voting into the New Seven Natural Wonders of the World.